Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can often have no apparent symptoms, and they can be transmitted through various sexual activities, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. STIs can be transmitted between all genders and do not necessarily require heterosexual contact. While many STIs can be treated with antibiotics, some, like HIV, do not have a cure, but medical treatment can help delay the onset of symptoms.
Chlamydia is one STI that often has no visible symptoms, making it challenging to detect. If you have had unprotected sex, it's important to get checked at a hospital. Chlamydia can occur in the rectum, throat, and urethra, and for women, it can also be found in the cervix and fallopian tubes. Unfortunately, many people (50% of women and 10% of men) cannot easily recognize the symptoms of chlamydia. It's essential to pay attention if you're diagnosed with chlamydia because you can still transmit the infection to others until you finish your antibiotic treatment.
Although it can be difficult to detect, there are symptoms of chlamydia to look out for.
For women, these can include:
yellow or green vaginal discharge, a foul-smelling discharge, pain during urination, vaginal bleeding during non-menstrual periods or after sex, pain during vaginal intercourse, and pain in the lower abdomen.
For men, symptoms can include:
pain or stinging during urination, itching or tingling near the urethra, a scar, blister, spot, or lump around the anus or genitals, black dust or small white spots in underwear (which may be substances released from pubic hair), and clear or mucus-like liquid coming out of the penis.
These symptoms typically appear between the second and third week following exposure to the bacteria, and if left untreated, they can emerge around the sixth week. Chlamydia can recur even after treatment, and if only one person receives therapy among two people who have sex, the untreated partner can become infected again.
Complications of Chlamydia
It's important to get treatment for chlamydia as soon as symptoms are detected. Neglecting treatment can lead to complications as the bacteria spreads to other parts of the body. For men, complications like orchitis, which can cause sterility, can develop, and for women, complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, tubal pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease can occur. Pregnant women with chlamydia can also transmit the bacteria to their newborns, causing blindness or pneumonia.
Treatment Methods for Chlamydia
Chlamydia is normally treated with antibiotics, and it's crucial to follow the treatment instructions. If you're prescribed pills, take them continuously until you finish the course, and any sexual partners you've had in the last two months should also be tested and treated. If you haven't had sex in the last two months, your most recent sexual partner should get checked and receive treatment. It's essential not to engage in oral, vaginal, or anal sex for seven days following the initiation of antibiotic treatment, as the infection can take time to clear fully. Chlamydia can recur, so it's best to have follow-up tests six months after completing treatment. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should get tested three to four weeks after treatment.
Is taking antibiotics helpful for contraception?
It's challenging to find evidence that antibiotics disrupt the effectiveness of hormonal contraception methods like the pill, patch, ring, and injection. However, it's crucial to continue using the same contraceptive method when receiving antibiotic treatment for an STI like chlamydia. If there are concerns about contraception, it's safer to use condoms until the next menstrual period after completing antibiotics.
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